Wednesday, June 16, 2010

Celestino Co & Company v. CIR


Celestino Co & Company is a general co-partnership registered under the trade name “Oriental Sash Factory”. From 1946 to 1951, it paid taxes equivalent to 7% on the gross receipts under Sec. 186 of the NIRC, which is a tax on the original sales of articles by manufacturer, producer or importer. However, in 1952 it began to claim only 3% tax under Sec. 191, which is a tax on sales of services. Petitioner claims that it does not manufacture ready-made doors, sash and windows for the public, but only upon special orders from the customers, hence, it is not engaged in manufacturing, but only in sales of services.


Whether the petitioner company is engaged in manufacturing, or is merely a special service provider


Celestino Co & Company habitually makes sash, windows and doors, as it has represented in its stationery and advertisements to the public. That it "manufactures" the same is practically admitted by appellant itself. The fact that windows and doors are made by it only when customers place their orders, does not alter the nature of the establishment, for it is obvious that it only accepted such orders as called for the employment of such material-moulding, frames, panels-as it ordinarily manufactured or was in a position habitually to manufacture.

Any builder or homeowner, with sufficient money, may order windows or doors of the kind manufactured by this appellant. Therefore it is not true that it serves special customers only or confines its services to them alone. And anyone who sees, and likes, the doors ordered by Don Toribio Teodoro & Sons Inc. may purchase from appellant doors of the same kind, provided he pays the price. Surely, the appellant will not refuse, for it can easily duplicate or even mass-produce the same doors-it is mechanically equipped to do so.

The Oriental Sash Factory does nothing more than sell the goods that it mass-produces or habitually makes; sash, panels, mouldings, frames, cutting them to such sizes and combining them in such forms as its customers may desire. When this Factory accepts a job that requires the use of extraordinary or additional equipment, or involves services not generally performed by it-it thereby contracts for a piece of work filing special orders within the meaning of Article 1467. The orders herein exhibited were not shown to be special. They were merely orders for work nothing is shown to call them special requiring extraordinary service of the factory.

Anyway, supposing for the moment that the transactions were not sales, they were neither lease of services nor contract jobs by a contractor. But as the doors and windows had been admittedly "manufactured" by the Oriental Sash Factory, such transactions could be, and should be taxed as "transfers" thereof under section 186 of the National Revenue Code.

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